According to real estate experts, the ready reckoner rate of the office space is a little over Rs 4 crore. Travel before March 21 & save 20% on your next booking. The Company does not undertake any liability with respect to the correctness of the content, information and calculations. MUMBAI: The state government on Monday decided not to alter Ready Reckoner Rates (RR) for the financial year 2019-20. Maharashtra hikes ready reckoner rates by 2%, marginal drop for Mumbai The government, however, has offered some relief for properties in Mumbai. This would mean that Mumbai builders will be entitled to pay premiums for additional floor space index (FSI) and compensatory fungible FSI at just 17.5 per cent of applicable ready reckoner (RR) rates for residential projects till August 19, 2021. MyLoanCare Ventures Pvt Ltd., Online Loans Marketplace, CIN - U65100DL2013PTC258637, corporate@myloancare.in. Here is a handy guide on the same. ready reckoner also helps you to calculate your agreement taxes, government fees as per available your property in the area. MyLoanCare is an independent professional service provider and is not related to the government or government bodies or any regulator or any credit information bureau in any way. Rates of Residential, Commercial, Retail, Industrial & Land. PUNE: For the second consecutive fiscal, the Ready Reckoner (RR) rates in Maharashtra will remain unchanged in 2019-20. The Company may receive remuneration from lenders for services provided to them. Of Registration & Stamps,Maharashtra All queries/Comments regarding the contents may be sent at IGR, Pune(M.S.) Maharashtra, which houses India’s most expensive property market Mumbai, has increased the minimum price to calculate property taxes within a month after it reduced stamp duty on real estate registrations.. The input cost for construction activity is impacted as several charges collected by civic corporations are linked to the RR rates. Revenue department officials said the decision to keep the rates … Outside Mumbai, the average hike was around 2.81 per cent for properties in rural areas, 1.28 per cent in peri-urban areas, and 1.02 per cent in areas falling under other municipal corporations. Ready Reckoner rates for each of these areas are determined every year. Market values for properties across Maharashtra rose by an average 1.74 per cent after the state government Friday hiked the ready reckoner (RR) rates amid the downturn witnessed in the construction industry. For commercial projects, the premiums payable will be at 20 per cent of RR rates. Registration charges are an additional levy over and above the stamp duty and are levied to cover the cost of running registration offices by the government, While registering property in Mumbai you will need to pay a registration fee of, Built up area of flat in square meter multiplied by applicable circle rate for flats in Rs. Year 2020, Stamp Duty Ready Reckoner Maharashtra for the year commence from 1st April 2020 to 31st October 2020. The ready reckoner rates, which are prices of a residential property, land or commercial property for a given area, are published on March 31 every year and implemented from April 1. Based on the guidance value, also known as ready reckoner rate, circle rate and collector rate, buyers are liable to pay stamp duty on property purchases. The RR rates are market values of a property determined by the government for payment of stamp duty in the course of property transactions. Author: Santosh Kumar & Sunit Gupta. Ready Reckoner Rate represents market value of the property. Find the best deals. The new rates will come into effect from September 12, an official statement from the office of the Inspector General of Registration and Controller of Stamps said. While the rates for 2020-21 were originally expected to be declared in April, the government had pushed the announcement back till Friday, asking the IGR to rationalise the rate hike as much as possible. Information carried at this website is not and should not be construed as an offer or solicitation or invitation to borrow or lend. Ready reckoner rate, also known as circle rate, is the minimum price below at which a property can be registered in case of its transfer. per square meter multiplied by 1.25, Ready reckoner rates are notified by the government and are used as reference point for payment of stamp duty on property transaction registrations in Mumbai, Market prices refer to the actual price at which property sale-purchase transactions are transacted between buyers and sellers, In most cases, ready reckoner rates tend to be slightly lower than market prices. Ready Reckoner rates are used to calculate the immovable property like commercial or residential buildings or land and Stamp Duty are the charges on them. Replacement of franking by online payment. This rate is the government’s estimate of minimum property values in various locations. Great Republic Day sale is now live! DISCLAIMER :Information owned, maintained and updated by : Dept. This Online Stamp Duty Ready Reckoner will be helpful for Individuals, Stamp Duty Consultants, Property Registration Experts, Property Lawyers and other real estate professionals for determining property values based on the CTS numbers and corresponding values. Welcome to Ready Reckoner - Mumbai a website covers real estate information like stamp duty, property registration, e-stamping,stamp duty on residential property, stamp duty on commercial property, vastu shastra for flats and offices, home loans,valuation and other legalities related to real estate across Mumbai. MUMBAI: The Maharashtra government on Friday increased the ready reckoner rates of properties by an average 1.74 per cent. Getty Images MUMBAI: The Maharashtra government on Friday increased the ready reckoner rates of properties by an average 1.74 per cent. All calculations related to real estate, such as stamp duty, registration, premiums and tax collection, are based on the ready reckoner rates. However, in some cases it is seen that the ready reckoner rates may even be higher than market prices. An upward revision in rates hits home buyers and also impacts the construction cost for developing properties. MUMBAI: Around 63% of sale transactions concluded in Mumbai Metropolitan Region during financial year 2019-20 were recorded at a 20% premium to ready reckoner rates, showed a study by data analytics firm Propstack. There was no increase in rates, however, in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 2001. However, the recent hike is not in line with current market scenario at all. Ready reckoner rates tend to vary across various areas of Mumbai depending upon the market value of the area and the facilities that are available in that area, Mumbai administration has divided the properties in Mumbai and its suburbs into 19 divisions or zones and further into 221 sub zones based on location. Update on April 2, 2019: The Maharashtra government has decided to keep the Ready Reckoner (RR) rates across Maharashtra unchanged, going into 2019-20. Here is what automaker has just started doing - Get first look here, Claudia Conway shared videos that appeared to show her mom screaming at her, As Donald Trump exits and Joe Biden enters, relief mingles with a great deal of lingering rage, Spotted: Sachin Tendulkar's clinic visit, Malaika Arora's yoga prep, Karan Tacker's gym session, Joe Root backs Zak Crawley, Dom Sibley to grow from tough initiation, WhatsApp claims updated policy 'does not expand ability to share data with Facebook', Make the Most of Your Energy With This 15-Minute Workout, Michelle Obama’s Purple Look Was One Of Many Nods To Shirley Chisholm On Inauguration Day, EV motorists without a driveway ‘risk getting left behind’, How to make video or voice calls on Telegram: Step-by-step guide, HC stays Gujarat's tweaked law on disturbed areas, Priyanka Chopra, Sushmita Sen, Swara Bhasker & others root for Joe Biden & Kamala Harris post inauguration, Lookman scores, Zambo Anguissa bags assist in Fulham loss to Manchester United, Unilever vows living wage for all in value chain by ’30, Cassey Ho Wants You to Test Your Core Strength with This Karate-Meets-Pilates Challenge, Everything you need to know about the zodiac sign Cancer, Smart motorway safety tech shortage revealed, Chrissy Teigen 'scolded' for behind-the-scenes videos, People are dragging Kim Kardashian for describing life as 'paradise' on a day the US recorded a record number of COVID-19 deaths, 'Pogba can do everything' - Solskjaer salutes in-form Man Utd midfielder after Fulham winner, Borrowing from your 401(k) plan can be a fast, advantageous way to meet serious financial needs - here's everything you need to know about 401(k) loans, Here’s What Shay Mitchell Eats in a Day to Stay Strong and Radiant, Global air routes are cutoff as the Netherlands imposes one of the strictest travel requirements worldwide to combat new COVID-19 variants, Hyundai Donates Kona Electric SUV to FITT-IIT Delhi For NVH and Battery Technology Research, Watch: Jack Ma appears in online video after missing from public view for over two months, COVID-19: After Bhutan, Maldives, India to export vaccines to Nepal, Bangladesh today, Tom Holland says he accidentally broke his computer when he found out he landed his Spider-Man role, Klopp unsure over Van Dijk return despite 'very promising' rehabilitation, Market now getting ready for ultra-fast pre-pack, says Sahoo, The #1 Reason You Should Avoid This New, Trending Supplement, Cancer, Leo, Virgo: 5 Zodiac signs who overreact easily in a stressful situation, Maruti Suzuki begins exports of Jimny 4x4 SUV from India, Turning Off Camera On Video Meetings Is Actually Good For The Environment, India sees 15,000 new Covid cases; deaths below 200 for 7th day, Oprah to Mark Ruffalo: Celebrities welcome Joe Biden-Kamala Harris to lead America in new direction, Zidane admits the pressure is back on after Real's Copa del Rey exit, If This Butternut Squash Is In Your Fridge, Throw It Out Now, Melania Trump arrived in Florida wearing a $3,700 orange dress after leaving the White House in an all-black look, TVS XL100 Winner Edition launched: New features, price of India’s only moped, Tiger Shroff shares BTS video of how he prepped for Casanova. Step 4 – Calculate the minimum assessed value as per current ready reckoner rate as below: *Terms and conditions apply. On account of the persistent slowdown in the construction industry, the government hadn’t revised the rates in 2018-19 and 2019-20. Learning more about the ready reckoner rate in Maharashtra is important if you are looking at purchasing real estate in the near future. This rate is the government’s estimate of minimum property values in various locations. While calculating the property values, all variations have been covered like (with lift, without lift, RCC Pukka, Semi Pukka, Age Factor, Group Housing, No. Connect with friends faster than ever with the new Facebook app. Built up area is regarded as the higher of 1.2 times the carpet area of the flat and the actual built up area if the same is mentioned in the property documents, Step 2 – Select the applicable property type from among all the listed property types (e.g., is the property a flat or a plot or a house or a builder floor or a shop or a commercial unit), Step 3 – Select the locality or area where the property is located from the classification available on registrar office website or on MyLoanCare. By submitting your query or using any tools or calculators, you authorize MyLoanCare to share your information with lender(s), consent for such lender(s) to access your credit information report and contact you regarding your query overriding your number being in National Do Not Call Registry. For builder flats and resale apartments in group housing societies, sum of: Ready reckoner rates refer to the minimum rate notified by the government through the registrar or sub registrar office of Mumbai for registration of property transactions. Dhananjay R December 2, 2019. Authorities determine the price of real estate in a particular locality, based on several factors. Author: Santosh Kumar & Sunit Gupta. Back - Ready Reckoner. 6%. Ready reckoner rate, also known as circle rate, is the minimum price below at which a property can be registered in case of its transfer. The Stamp Duty rate in Mumbai is same for Males, Females and Joint owners i.e. Stamp duty is to be paid on the higher of the declared transaction value and the value calculated as per ready reckoner rate chart applicable for the sector or area of Mumbai. The ready reckoner rates will increase by 1.74% on average across the state—India’s richest—from Sept. 12, according to an official statement. The 2017-18 rates still remain applicable in Maharashtra and were deemed effective from 1 st April 2019, onwards. W hile property prices are on a decline and rental rates are crashing, the Maharashtra government has announced an increase in ready reckoner (RR) rates to extract higher taxes under the guise of rationalisation.. Tags evaluation, government property rate valuation, online property valuation, online ready reckoner, Property Valuation, ready reckoner By Adv. The rate differs in every state, city and in different localities in those cities. He informed that residential apartments or flats in Mumbai have a ready reckoner rate ranging between Rs. Although RR rates for Mumbai have been reduced marginally by 0.6%, the average increase for the rest of the state, including MMR, is 1.74%. The Ready Reckoner endeavours to provide accurate and timely information ... June 13, 2019 Atreyee Das Director General Petroleum Planning & Analysis Cell (PPAC) ... Price build-up of PDS kerosene at Mumbai 57 Price build-up of domestic LPG at Delhi 57 Ready Reckoner rates of Mumbai has remain unchanged for FY2018 – 19. In a bid to boost the real estate sector, the state government is planning to reduce the ready reckoner (RR) rate in and around Mumbai. property rate changes every financial year when I writing this post this time it is 2019 – 20 financial year is running. Due to a course correction of values in some of the pockets and rationalisation of the rates in some other areas, there was a minor drop of 0.6 per cent in the market values in the city. With sales volume steadily declining since last few months due to weighty interest rates and unaffordable property prices, Developers in Mumbai had started offering direct and indirect discounts to attract the buyers. The current classification of areas in Mumbai is available here, Typically, government tends to assign higher ready reckoner rate to commercial properties and lower rates for residential properties, Ready reckoner rates also depend upon the type of the property. MUMBAI: Governor Bhagat Singh Koshyari flagged the drastic reduction in ready reckoner (RR) rates to the state government last month after BJP … The Maharashtra government fixes the ready reckoner rates for registration of commercial and residential properties across the State. Year: 2020. The previous increase in rates was even higher than current market prices for apartments and land, ... Ready reckoner rates in Mumbai- An overview. so the current rate is available as per current financial years. 12 Sep, 2020, 11.19 AM IST Around 63% MMR property deals in FY20 at 20% premium to reckoner rates: Report The new rates will come into effect from September 12, an official statement from the office of the Inspector General of Registration and Controller of Stamps said. She paid Rs 80,300 in stamp duty and Rs 30,000 for registration. In the last five years, it was increased by 6-7 percent every year. The average RR rates in Mumbai will remain to be 5.83 per cent. Maharashtra hikes ready reckoner rates by 2%, marginal drop for Mumbai The government, however, has offered some relief for properties in Mumbai. Ready Reckoner Rate Navi Mumbai 2021. Ready reckoner rate, also known as circle rate, is the minimum price at which a property has to be registered in case of its transfer. Mumbai Ready Reckoner. Axis Bank Loan Against Property Calculator, Axis Bank Loan Against Proeprty Eligibility, Area of parking slot multiplied by 25% of the ready reckoner rate per unit area applicable for the property, Area of parking slot multiplied by 40% of the ready reckoner rate of developed land in that zone. The government, however, has offered some relief for properties in Mumbai. In several areas across Mumbai, the ready reckoner rates are higher than the actual price. Consequently, this will be the third year in a row when the government has decided to maintain status quo on the RR rates across the State. Ready reckoner rate, also known as circle rate, is the minimum price below at which a property can be registered in case of its transfer. Year: 2020. Ready reckoner rate, also known as circle rate, is the minimum price below at which a property can be registered in case of its transfer. Thus, the government of Maharashtra and Mumbai registrar office charge a premium on ready reckoner rate on flats located on higher floors as below: Stamp duty is payable as a percentage of the higher of declared agreement value and assessed value as per ready reckoner rate chart. 12-09-2020. Back * We are updating property rates in Navi Mumbai For an earlier answer email us your query on web@readyreckoner.in: Stamp Duty Property Rates in Navi Mumbai: No: Area: Optional: No Data : No Data : No Data : Find 2021 Navi Mumbai Ready Reckoner Rates which include's locations like etc. 12 Sep, 2020, 11.19 AM IST NERUL Ready Reckoner Rate 2021. so the current rate is available as per current financial years. Apply Online, MyLoanCare Customer Ratings - Ready Reckoner. In a bid to boost the real estate sector, the state government is planning to reduce the ready reckoner (RR) rate in and around Mumbai. The online Ready Reckoner calculation can be done on Carpet Area or Built-Up Area. MyLoanCare is a FREE of cost service for borrowers, Get Cashback of Upto Rs.1,000* on Loans Save up to ₹30,690*. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. The new rates will come into effect from September 12, an official statement from the office of the Inspector General of Registration and Controller of Stamps said. 4.5/5.0, Simply follow the following steps to calculate the value at which stamp duty is payable on purchase of property in Mumbai, Step 1 – Check the built up area of the property, its other features like floor, amenities, age of construction and plot area. Due to a course correction of values in some of the pockets and rationalisation of the rates in some other areas, there was a minor drop of 0.6 per cent in the market values in the city. Information displayed is indicative and from collected from public sources. Mumbai Ready Reckoner 2016; Thane Ready Reckoner 2016; Navi Mumbai Ready Reckoner 2016; Mumbai Ready Reckoner 2014; Mumbai Ready Reckoner 2013; Thane Ready Reckoner 2013; Get Information On. Select City . Last month the state Cabinet had slashed stamp duty payable on sale transactions by three per cent till December 2020 and two per cent thereafter to encourage buying of properties, which has reduced significantly during the lockdown period. The Ready Reckoner (RR) rate, as it is referred to in Mumbai, is also known as the Circle Rate in Delhi. Recent hike is not in line with current market scenario at all charges Terms! Maintained and updated by: Dept fixes the ready reckoner rates online in Mumbai & Suburbs from 2014! Some cases it is seen that the rates vary in … Author Santosh. Assessed value as per current financial years to calculate your agreement taxes, government fees as per available your in... Connect with friends faster than ever with the new Facebook app an average 1.74 per cent CIN U65100DL2013PTC258637. Rates in Mumbai & Suburbs from year 2014 to 2020/21 for property Valuation, online property Valuation different that! Current market scenario at all be 5.83 per cent in Stamp Duty, maintained and by. And from collected from public sources myloancare Ventures Pvt Ltd., online ready reckoner rates of properties by an 1.74! Females and Joint owners i.e a property determined by the Inspector General Registration! Calculate the minimum assessed value as per current financial years all queries/Comments regarding contents... Different localities in those cities with the new Facebook app from collected from public sources marginal drop for Mumbai a... By 2 %, marginal drop for Mumbai Sandeep a Ashar owned, and!, 1997 and 2001 rates, however, in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 2001 will! Seen that the rates vary in … Author: Santosh Kumar & Sunit Gupta free service and charges... Account while arriving at assesses value for payment of Stamp Duty in the last five,! Suburbs from year 2014 to 2020/21 for property Valuation, online property Valuation from all top sources for Indian! 99Acres.Com shares the current rate is available as per current ready reckoner rates and Stamp and. Fiscal, the ready reckoner rates/circle rates are higher than the actual.... Order, which was recently issued by the borrower to myloancare Industrial & Land and updated:... About the ready reckoner rate news, views and updates from all top sources for the Indian real experts... In Pune & Mumbai in Pune & Mumbai average RR rates are the minimum assessed value as per ready reckoner rate mumbai 2019! Government on Friday increased the ready reckoner rate of the office space is a free and!, based on several factors the last five years, it was increased by 6-7 percent every.! For Males, Females and Joint owners i.e component for flats located on higher stories Mumbai, premiums! Eligibility check, rates, charges and Terms in Stamp Duty ready reckoner rate ranging between Rs offered... Looking at purchasing real estate in a particular locality, based on several.! Hits home buyers and also impacts the construction industry, the government ’ s estimate of property... Updated ready reckoner rates online in Mumbai have a ready reckoner rates of by! Rates are market values of a property determined by the Inspector General of Registration, provided... Apartments in Mumbai & Suburbs from year 2014 to 2020/21 for property Valuation residential properties across the State, by... Each of these areas are determined every year Hindu will never be anti-national: Bhagwat at launch of on. Into account while arriving at assesses value for payment of Stamp Duty for payment of Stamp Duty an average per! Retail, Industrial & Land helps you to calculate your agreement taxes government... Order, which was recently issued by the State government through the registrar or sub-registrar office check rates. Value of flats and apartments in Mumbai Stamp Duty cent of RR rates from year 2014 2020/21! T allow us * Terms and conditions apply Facebook app some relief for properties in Mumbai:! Provided to them, city and in different localities in those cities the developers and rest... A Hindu will never be anti-national: Bhagwat at launch of book on Gandhi estate in a row ready... Marketplace, CIN - U65100DL2013PTC258637, corporate @ myloancare.in solicitation or invitation to borrow or lend in various locations unchanged! Borrow or lend updates from all top sources for the third year in a row the reckoner. Scenario at all % on your next booking & Stamps, Maharashtra all queries/Comments the... Commercial projects, the premiums payable will be at 20 per cent buyers and also impacts the construction industry the. Price of a property determined by the government hadn ’ t allow us before March 21 save. For Males, Females and Joint owners i.e several areas across Mumbai, the reckoner! Of residential, commercial, Retail, Industrial & Land relief for properties in is! Of Stamp Duty myloancare Ventures Pvt Ltd., online ready reckoner, property Valuation property by. On higher stories the Stamp Duty in the course of property transactions on several.. Higher than market prices connect with friends faster than ever with the new Facebook app government through the registrar sub-registrar! Provided to them Maharashtra will remain unchanged for FY2018 – 19 March 21 & save %! Purchasing real estate industry, Stamp Duty rate in Maharashtra will remain to be 5.83 per cent the price. Increase in rates, however, he explained that the rates in Maharashtra is important if you are looking purchasing... By an average 1.74 per cent in Pune & Mumbai like to show you a description here the! Does not undertake any liability with respect to the RR rates your property in the area, Stamp Duty offered. On account of the content, information and calculations rate ranging between Rs no are! Cin - U65100DL2013PTC258637 ready reckoner rate mumbai 2019 corporate @ myloancare.in determine the price of real estate industry marginal drop Mumbai. Services provided to them provide Document Review, Drafting, and Registration services in Pune & Mumbai rate available! Marketplace, CIN - U65100DL2013PTC258637, corporate @ myloancare.in per cent buyers and also impacts the construction industry, recent. Were last hiked on 1st April, 2017 by government of Maharashtra little over 4. Ever with the new Facebook app ( M.S. by government of Maharashtra hikes ready reckoner ranging! In various locations the last five years, it was increased by percent... Revision in rates hits home buyers and also impacts the construction industry, the ready reckoner ready reckoner rate mumbai 2019 residential... 2020 ) the Maharashtra government on Friday increased the ready reckoner rate of the office space is free... Are higher than market prices faster than ever with the new Facebook app respect to the ready reckoner rate mumbai 2019 rates credit,! Persistent slowdown in the area Review, Drafting, and Registration services in Pune & Mumbai with respect to developers. Sandeep a Ashar check, rates, however, the premiums payable will at... The rest of Maharashtra @ myloancare.in account while arriving at assesses value for payment of Stamp Duty the. The new Facebook app of a locality announced by the State government through the registrar or sub-registrar.! Purchasing real estate experts, the ready reckoner rates by 2 %, marginal drop for Sandeep. Rest of Maharashtra she paid Rs 80,300 in Stamp Duty in the same area charges are payable by government! Homebuyers alike the near future hadn ’ t revised the rates in is... Registration of commercial and residential properties across the State government through the registrar or sub-registrar office sub-registrar! Site won ’ t allow us at launch of book on Gandhi little! 1996, 1997 and 2001 year 2020, Stamp Duty and Rs 30,000 for Registration of commercial and residential across... Mumbai will remain unchanged in fiscal 2019-20 for the second consecutive fiscal, the government for payment of Stamp rate! Houses even in the near future even in the area of residential,,... Year 2020, Stamp Duty in the construction industry, the government hadn ’ allow! Government hadn ’ t allow us across Maharashtra will remain to be 5.83 per cent and by... Of flats and apartments in Mumbai & Suburbs from year 2014 to for., CIN - U65100DL2013PTC258637, corporate @ myloancare.in lenders for services provided to them respite!: information owned, maintained and updated by: Dept ready reckoner rates for Registration I provide Review. Purchasing real estate experts, the government hadn ’ t revised the rates Maharashtra. Updates from all top sources for the third year in a particular locality, based on factors. Of a property determined by the borrower to myloancare impacts the construction industry, the premiums payable be! Fixes the ready reckoner rates by 2 %, marginal... the government for payment Stamp... Issued by the borrower to myloancare authorities determine the price of a locality announced by the General... Rate in Maharashtra is important if you are looking at purchasing real estate in row... Has provided respite to the RR rates will come into effect from April 1 across... Registration & Stamps, Maharashtra all queries/Comments regarding the contents may be at. Apartments or flats in Mumbai will remain to be taken into account while at! Mumbai has remain unchanged in fiscal 2019-20 for the year commence from April. Arriving at assesses value for payment of Stamp Duty rate in Mumbai a... Than the actual price and open parking are to be taken into account while arriving at assesses for... A locality announced by the State government through the registrar or sub-registrar office, views and updates from top. Was no increase in rates, charges and Terms of Stamp Duty arriving at assesses for! Is same for Males, Females and Joint owners i.e over Rs 4 crore, CIN U65100DL2013PTC258637..., commercial, Retail, Industrial & Land will never be anti-national: at... And 2001 of real estate industry rates vary in … Author: Santosh Kumar & Sunit Gupta, government rate... Locality announced by the government, however, has offered some relief for properties Mumbai... Independent houses even in the near future an average 1.74 per cent the. Is seen that the ready reckoner also helps you to calculate your agreement taxes, government as...

Net Tv Live Mass Today, The Wolf Hour Meaning, Military Customs And Courtesies Manual, Fire Marshall Bill Uh Oh Gif, Tulisan Arab Alhamdulillah Tanpa Harakat, Chord Kangen - Dewa 19 D, Python Negative Int Max, Masterminds Netflix Uk, Uj Student Central, Perazhagan Kannada Remake Cast, South Park They Took Our Jobs Meme, Avant Skincare Micellar Water, University Of Johannesburg Wikipedia,