Nihil Obstat. In his internal administration Trajan was incessantly occupied in encouraging commerce and industries. T he Roman conquest of Dacia (the ancient forerunner of modern Romania) has not ceased to fascinate, as demonstrates the weighty tome here discussed—on my bathroom scale well over six pounds of arguments, photographs, maps, and *Part II of Everett Wheeler’s “Rome’s Dacian Wars: Domitian, Trajan, and Strategy on the Danube” … Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Although Hadrian differed completely in temperament from Trajan and initially had not been advanced with any unusual speed, Trajan, a few years before his death, had made him governor of Syria, where he was responsible for the logistical support of the Parthian campaign. The victory over Dacia was the defining event of Trajan’s 19-year rule. In 115 Trajan annexed upper Mesopotamia and, in the same or next year, moved down the Tigris River to capture the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. Trajan was a prolific builder in Rome and the provinces, and many of his buildings were erected by the gifted architect Apollodorus of Damascus. Decebalus had compelled Domitian (emperor 81-96) to make peace on humiliating terms, and Trajan wanted to set this right. Ecclesiastical approbation. Nice print titled Sozorney with Trajan's Bridge, from steel engraving with fine detail and clear impression, nice hand coloring, approx. Constructed even in places without natural terrestrial links, where the rocky bank steeply meets the river, and where dangerous, deep … The Governor of Syria conquered Arabia Petraea and Trajan himself entered Armenia during the Parthian War (114-7). In preparation for them, in 105/106 one of his generals annexed the Nabataean kingdom, the part of Arabia extending east and south of Judaea. Art and learning flourished during Trajan's reign. During the reign of Domitian, Trajan was also involved with King Decebalus, but without any special consequences. He was descended from an old Roman family, and was adopted in 97 by the Emperor Nerva. Trajan was popular among Roman citizens as an emperor, but his main passion was war.He ruled for 19 years and during that period he participated in three major wars: the first two with the Dacians and the last on the eastern frontier. Apollodorus of Damascus was a Greek engineer, architect, designer and sculptor who flourished during the 2nd century AD, from Damascus, Roman Syria. Pliny was legate of the double Province of Bithynia and Pontus. In pursuance of these orders measures were taken against Christians in other places also. "Trajan was a native of Spain, and a soldier by profession and talent. Some historians also attribute the construction of the Babylon fortress in Egypt to Trajan,the remains of the fort is what is now known as the Church of Mar Girgis and its surroun… In 101, however, he resumed the invasion of Dacia that Domitian had been forced to abandon by Decebalus, the country’s redoubtable king. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Later Hadrian built a temple to the deified Trajan at the end of the Forum towards the Campus Martius. Transcription. He either commissioned the creation or enlargement of the road along … The canal Trajan had built along the Danube in preparation for the wars. Among his literary contemporaries were Tacitus, Juvenal, and the younger Pliny with whom the emperor carried on an animated correspondence. That road, the Via Nova Traiana, linked the city of Bostra—which became the capital of the new Roman province of Arabia—with the Red Sea. Contact information. Trajan’s most famous campaign is undoubtedly that against Dacia, a powerful kingdom north of the Danube in modern Romania. Surely then our citizens will proclaim you as their best ruler, the Optimus Princeps. Did you like this article? Britannica now has a site just for parents. Besides serving honorific functions, Trajan’s Column has also been a funerary monument since its creation. 96). Dacia (modern Romania), was seen as a troublesome neighbor by the Romans and the Dacians were seen to pose a threat to the province of Moesia, along the Danube frontier. He gained a large amount of territory for the empire and laid the foundations of civilization all over the provinces by the founding of municipal communities. [2] He was a favourite of Trajan, for whom he constructed Trajan's Bridge over the Danube for the 105-106 campaign in Dacia.He also designed the Forum Trajanum and Trajan's Column within the city of Rome, beside several smaller projects. Trajan’s famous bridge over the Danube. The first five scenes on the Column of Trajan depict: Scene I: Watchtowers and Roman soldiers on the banks of the Danube River; Scene II: A river town on the banks of the Danube and the loading of boats; Scene III: A town on the banks of the Danube, and a personification of the river itself; Scene IV: Roman troops cross the river on a pontoon bridge; Scene V: the Roman march. In this territory he found many Christians and requested instructions from Trajan (Ep. My email address is webmaster at newadvent.org. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York. "Trajan." Despite his title Germanicus, his first year on the Rhine-Danube frontier was not marked by any major conquest. When that failed the new Emperor Trajan led tens of thousands of Roman troops across the Danube River over a massive bridge that was constructed for the invasion, and defeated the barbaric empire on its home turf twice. He became a consul in his late thirties. Hence contemporary gossip stamped the announcement of Hadrian’s last-minute adoption as a fiction put out by the empress Plotina, though it was probably a genuine deathbed decision. Your legions stand at the ready to march out and establish the largest empire the world has ever seen. Vol. In 101 AD, Trajan left Rome to battle with the Dacians and easily defeated them at Tapae. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15015a.htm. Apollodorus was active in Rome for a time, having among his other undertakings done the Forum of Trajan and Trajan… Share it with your friends! The arrival of the emperor had been awaited in the capital with an impatience which is expressed by Pliny and by Martial. Numerous stately ruins in and around Rome give proof of this emperor's zeal in erecting buildings for public purposes. This correspondence belonging to the years 111-3 throws light on the persecution of Christians during this reign. The Funerary Monument. Image Galleries. In 101 CE Trajan left Rome to battle the Dacians, quickly defeating them at Tapae. Trajan no doubt planned a war before he left the Danube for Rome late in 99. But Trajan did not then adopt him or give any indication of a choice of successor. MERIVALE, Hist. der römischen Kaiser, II (Leipzig, 1909), 171-86; LA BERGE, Essai sur le regne de Trajan (Paris, 1877); RAMSAY, The Church in the Roman Empire (London, 1893); ARNOLD, Studien zur Gesch. Trajan created a new province of Dacia north of the Danube within the curve of the Carpathian Mountains. Trajan was one of the ablest of the Roman emperors; ... (limes) between Roman and Germanic territory from the Danube to the Rhine, and with great determination led two campaigns (101-2 and 105-7) against the Dacian king, Decebalus, whose country he converted into a new province of the empire. The chief of these is the immense Forum Trajanum, which in size and splendour casts the forums of the other emperors into the shade. Löffler, K. (1912). Trajan’s Brigde over the Danube built by Greek engineer and architect Apollodorus from Damascus, ordered by Emperor Trajan was a Roman bridge, the first to be built over the lower Danube. Danube Bridge Trajan also built the last of the great aqueducts of Rome – the Aqua Traiana. A Roman river bank road along the Danube / Danubius, secured by a varying number of military positions and military technical installations, ran strictly along the right river bank and its gorges, encompassing the Upper and the Lower Gorge Iron Gate / Đerdap. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Michael T. Barrett. Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. The emperor Trajan, who reigned from 98 – 117 C.E., fought a series of campaigns known as the Dacian Wars. In the middle of the great open space was the colossal equestrian statute of Trajan; the free area itself was surrounded by rows of columns and niches surmounted by high arches. Two wars were fought against it, resulting in its destruction and annexation as a Roman province in AD 106. Bartlett. Two other provinces were conquered, although neither proved of importance subsequently. Next, about 110, the Parthians deposed the pro-Roman king of Armenia, whereupon in 113/114 Trajan campaigned to reinstate him. The most distinguished martyrs under Trajan were Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, and Simeon, Bishop of Jerusalem. Whoever shows by sacrificing to the gods that he is not a Christian is to be released. MLA citation. The force moves along the Danube, then disembarks. He is renowned chiefly for abandoning the policy, established by Augustus and generally adhered to by his successors, of not extending the Roman frontiers. View of Trajan’s Column in Rome, erected in 106-13 AD, via National Geographic . Legend names many others, but there was no actual persecution on a large scale and the position of the Christians was in general satisfactory. In two campaigns (101–102 and 105–106), Trajan captured the Dacian capital of Sarmizegethusa (modern Varhély), which lay to the north of the Iron Gate in western Romania; Decebalus evaded capture by suicide. He established order on the borders of the Rhine, built the larger part of the boundary wall (limes) between Roman and Germanic territory from the Danube to the Rhine, and with great determination led two campaigns (101-2 and 105-7) against the Dacian king, Decebalus, whose country he converted into a new province of the empire. Trajan was one of the ablest of the Roman emperors; he was stately and majestic in appearance, had a powerful will, and showed admirable consideration and a chivalrous kindliness. of the Romans under the Empire (London, 1850-62), lxiii, lxiv; SCHILLER, Gesch. The editor of New Advent is Kevin Knight. Late in 115, Trajan barely escaped death in an earthquake that devastated Antioch (modern Antakya, Turkey). You must be logged in to post a comment. October 1, 1912. However, in March 101 Trajan resumed his campaign on the Danube, where he was determined to make war on the Dacians, led by Decebalus, in what is now Romania and Hungary. 15. Some think that his Dacian campaigns brought the empire new revenues and strengthened the Danubian frontier. Trajan followed the footsteps of his father and pursued a … Marcus Cocceius Nerva, an elderly senator of some distinction, was the choice of Domitian’s assassins for emperor; and the Senate promptly recognized him. Trajan’s Dacian campaigns are so well-known thanks largely to the permanent reminder of his conquest erected in Rome. Dacia (modern Romania), was seen as a troublesome neighbor by the Romans and the Dacians were seen to pose a threat to the province of Moesia, along the Danube frontier. Notable structures include Trajan's Column, Trajan's Forum, Trajan's Bridge, Alcántara Bridge, the road and canal around the Iron Gates (see conquest of Dacia), and possibly the Alconétar Bridge. The action he prescribed rests on the coercive power of the police, the right of repression of the magistracy, which required no settled form of procedure. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15015a.htm. Indeed, Trajan’s building projects were numerous throughout the empire and besides all of these accomplishments, he also built a magnificent bridge across the Danube, which he … Decebalus was forced to cede large piece of territory north of the Danube, but … de plinianischen Christenverfolgung (Konigsberg, 1887). Trajan’s Column: Scene 4, Danube Crossing Roger Ulrich September 15, 2013 ... Trajan’s Column, Scene 4: The first crossing of the Danube. The pontoon bridges Trajan used to cross the Danube in the First Dacian War. Dedicated to the martyrs of Rome. page size 26.5 x 20.5 cm, approx. This bridge, probably the biggest at that time and for centuries to come, was designed by Apollodorus of Damascus and was meant to help the Roman army advance faster in Dacia in case of a future war. Trajan created a new province of Dacia north of the Danube within the curve of the Carpathian Mountains. Tweet. . In 116 revolts broke out both in the newly conquered territories and in Jewish communities in several of the eastern provinces. Print was published in: The Danube: Its History, Scenery, and Topography, Splendidly Illustrated, from Sketches Taken on the Spot by Abresch, and Drawn by W.H. A bridge later known as Trajan's bridge was constructed across the Danube at Drobeta to assist with the legionaries' advance. The province became an important defensive outpost within the Empire, bolstered by the natural boundary of the great Danube river. Trajan is always at their head, and rides with a group of auxiliary infantry, cavalry and barbarian irregulars to … New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. The emperor Trajan, who reigned from 98 – 117 C.E., fought a series of campaigns known as the Dacian Wars. . Under Domitian he had been involved briefly with King Decebalus and the Dacians along the Danube River but without any clear success. Trajan’s civil accomplishments were impressive but, except for the alimenta, not innovative. At the end of the structure was the Bibliotheca Ulpia, in the court of which stood the celebrated Trajan's Column with its reliefs representing scenes in the Dacian wars. During his 19 year reign, he was involved in three major wars - the first two with the Dacians and the last on the eastern frontier. Before Trajan returned to Rome in AD 99 to assume his place as 'emperor', time spent scouting enemy dispositions and investigating the Danube fortifications assuredly inspired him to prepare for an offensive into Dacia. Löffler, Klemens. The harbour of Ancona was enlarged and new harbours and roads were constructed. As he entered the city and went on foot to the Capitol the plaudits of the people were unmistakably genuine. Modern historians differ in their judgments of Trajan both as a ruler and as a conqueror. APA citation. Trajan’s second major war was against the Parthians, Rome’s traditional enemy in the east. Trajan, discouraged and in ill health, left Antioch for Rome. Meanwhile, Trajan undertook the construction of a road along the ancient caravan trail known as the King’s Highway. In his reply (Ep. Where the adherence to Christianity is proved the punishment of death is to follow. Imprimatur. Trajan’s most famous campaign is undoubtedly that against Dacia, a powerful kingdom north of the Danube in modern Romania. Via Traiana. New York: Robert Appleton Company. der römischen Kaiserzeit, I (Gotha, 1883), 543-94; DOMASZEWSKI, Gesch. The Catholic Encyclopedia. The chronology of his campaigns is uncertain. image size 18 x 12 cm. While historians have identified him as a thoughtful emperor, Trajan’s real passion was war (and he was very good at it). Others regard his success as having been prepared by Domitian and his Parthian war as having overstrained the resources of the empire because of his megalomanic desire for military glory. His ashes were returned to Rome for a state funeral and burial in the base of his column. Meta. Trajan (18 September 53-8 August 117) was Roman Emperor from 98 to 117, succeeding Nerva and preceding Hadrian.Trajan was known as a great Roman emperor, conquering Dacia and Armenia, also briefly conquering the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon before being forced to retreat due to internal issues as well as revolts in Parthia. He died, in his 64th year, at Selinus (modern Selindi) on the southern coast of Asia Minor. Interpretations of scenes on Trajan's Column and the metopes of the Adamklissi monument remain controversial. Cast your net wide, oh Trajan, emperor of mighty Rome. Earlier campaigns against the Dacians as well as against Germanic tribes across the Danube by Domitian had met with some success, but the situation had been largely left unsettled. He reached the Persian Gulf, where he is said to have wept because he was too old to repeat Alexander the Great’s achievements in India. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This provided land for Roman settlers, opened for exploitation rich mines of gold and salt , and established a defensive zone to absorb movements of nomads from the steppes of southern Russia . 97) Trajan considers the confession of Christianity as a crime worthy of death, but forbade a search for Christians and the acceptance of anonymous denunciations. The soldiers, however, did so much more reluctantly, and, because the year 69 had revealed that emperors no longer needed to…. Map of A map of the Roman Empire under Trajan's rule showing the boundaries of the Empire. This provided land for Roman settlers, opened for exploitation rich mines of gold and salt, and established a defensive zone to absorb movements of nomads from the steppes of southern Russia. Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Trajan also reformed the infrastructure of the Iron Gates region of Danube. His ambition to achieve military renown led him to undertake distant and important conquests. The Dacian King Decebalus, who had remained in power as a thorn in the proverbial Roman side, had spent the bett… Two wars were fought against it, resulting in its destruction and annexation as a Roman province in AD 106. Built around 103 to 105, Trajan's Bridge, or Pontes, is considered an architectural marvel, at 3,500 feet across. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Trajan. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Michael T. Barrett. Trajan was one of the ablest of the Roman emperors; ... 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